Carpet glossary: S-T

Saff carpets, hand knotted praying carpets with patterns of several mihrabs in a row. The pattern of the carpets of heavily reduced mihrabs occur mostly among Turkish and Pakistani carpets. Mihrabs in full size occur mainly among older carpets from East Turkestan.

Sahend carpets, a denomination on better newly manufactured Tabriz carpets.

Salor carpets, handknotted carpets manufactured by Salors, a Turkoman ethnic group before 1860. The carpets are rare and of high quality. Their typical göl constitutes of an octagon surrounded by double hooks, often with a star in the middle. The pattern is also used by other Turkoman people, but are always called Salorgöl.

Samarkand carpets, a generic term for handknotted carpets from East Turkestan, sold through Samarkand.

Sarab carpets, Serab carpets are handknotted carpets of high quality, manufactured in and around the city of Sarab in Azarbaijan in northwestern Iran. Older carpets (manufactured before 1930-40) are often knotted on a warp of wool while the newer ones are knotted on a cotton warp. The most common geometrical patterns are blue, red and camel-brown. There is also large production of runners in this type of carpets.

Saraband carpets, a different name for Seraband carpets.

Sarderud carpets, hand knotted carpets with a short pile surface, made of good wool from the district of Hamadan, Iran.

Saroq carpets, a different name for Sarough carpets.

Sarough carpets, Saruk, Sarouk, Saroq carpets, hand knotted carpets from the place Saruq and its surroundings in western Iran. The carpets are made of shiny wool with a Persian knot on a double warp of cotton, which gives a strong and durable carpet. Carpets in red and blue colours are common, sometimes with stylized floral motifs.

Sarouk carpets, a different name for Sarough carpets.

Saruk carpets, another name for Sarough carpets.

Saveh carpets, usually very colourful carpets with geometrical patterns. They are knotted with Turkish knots by nomads, south of Teheran. The colours are often darkred and strong blue nuances. The carpets are of high quality and very durable, due to the fact that the wool is of very high quality.

Savonnerie pattern, bears a resemblence to the Rococo pattern.

Schuscha carpets, handknotted carpets from the district of Karabagh, Azerbajdzjan.

Sedjadeh, a size denomination on Oriental carpets. Size approximately 130 × 180 cm.

Sehna carpets, a different name for Senneh carpets.

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Seirafian-Isfahan, knotted in the city of Isfahan in southwest of Persia. The carpet knotter Haj Agha Reza Seirafian began knotting carpets in 1939 and distinguished himself later on by only using the best pattern-drawers, weavers, colours and the best materials. Thereby, the carpets also gained a lot of attention for their high quality. The carpets are thought to be the finest of all Persian carpets and have a very high knot density and are exquisite handicraft. After his death the handicraft lives on through his many sons.

Semi-antique, age denomination for Oriental carpets, in general equal to 50-100 years old.

Semnan carpets, handknotted carpets from the city of Semnan, east of Teheran, Iran.

Senna carpets, a different name for Senneh carpets.

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Senneh carpets, Sehna, Senna carpets , handknotted carpets from the Kurdish city of Sanandaj (former Senna) in western Iran.

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Senneh knot, a different name for Persian knot (also called asymmetrical knot or farsibaff ).

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Seraband carpets, (after Saravand, a district in western Iran). Handknotted carpets are manufactured here in the district of Arak in western Iran. The center field in the carpet, mostly red can be with or without a medallion, but are always dominated by a repetitive mir-e butha. The carpets are often roughly knotted and occur in all sizes.

Serapi carpets, handknotted carpets in Heriz quality.

Serapi pattern, a special quality of the Heriz carpet , characterized by cypresses on a terracotta red bottom.

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Shah Abbasi pattern, a commonly occuring center field pattern on Oriental carpets.

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Shahjahanpur, an area in India with large production of carpets.

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Shahsevan carpets, hand knotted carpets manufactured by the Shahsevan nomads in the province Azarbaijan in northwestern Iran. The tribe has moved over large areas earlier and took a lot of impressions from patterns and colours. The carpets are knotted today in Hamadan technique and the motifs are stylized and geometric in clear and saturated colours.

Sherkat Farsh (Persian; carpet company) is a foundation that was established about 70 years ago in Iran. The purpose with this foundation is to uphold the old traditions from the Persian carpet culture and to maintain the quality in the countrys carpet production. Nowadays the foundation organizes quality production of carpets in 500 villages and 100 cities around Iran. Sherkat Farsh carpets have a high knot density, naturally dyed wool of high quality and with beautiful patterns and colour combinations the tradition lives on in these durable carpets.

Shiraz carpets, handknotted carpets manufactured by nomads as well as residents in and around the city of Shiraz in southern Iran.

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Shirazi, the sewn or woven edge on the long side of a handknotted Oriental carpet.

Shirvan carpets, Shirwan carpets , another name for Sjirvan carpets.

Shredded carpet, a woven carpet in lengths with weft of cut (or torn) shredded fabrics in shred weaving. The shredded carpets became popular in the Swedish countryside after 1860 at the start of making paper (wood) pulp of wood instead of linen rags. Shredded carpets are typical of the Swedish country homes, but periodically have been commonly used and are still of great importance for their handicraft.

Shredded weaving, a weaving technique where the weft consists of shreds from usually used fabrics. They were originally used as bottom sheets and covers. The use of putting the shredded weaving on the floor (shredded carpet) began later and increased in the end of the 19th century.

Siebenbürgen carpets, a different name for Transsylvanian carpets, Romania. The pattern are similar to the ones found on Bergamo carpets.

Sileh carpets, flatwoven carpets in a tangled technique, manufactured in southern Caucasia. The carpets usually have rich patterns with red as the main colour and with large angular S-motifs. They lack borders and are woven in two pieces due to the thin looms.

Silk, natural silk, textile fibres from cocoons mainly from the Silkworm.

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Silk-Hereke carpets, manufactured in the city of Hereke near the Sea of Marmara, Turkey.

Silk-Saff carpets, Saff carpets, manufactyured in silk. Mainly from the districts of Kayseri and Brusa in Turkey.

Sinkiang carpets, hand knotted carpets from the area of Xinjiang in western China.

Sirjan carpets, hand knotted carpets from Sirjan in southern Iran. Many nomadic tribes such as the Ghashghais and the Afshars gather lots of influences for their carpets from Sirjan. They are famous for their Sofreh productions, a kind of Kelim that is often small and squared.

Sisal carpets, uncoloured carpets in a simple woven construction.

Sivas carpets, hand knotted carpets from the city of Sivas and surroundings in eastern Turkey. Workshop carpets of good quality are made here, often with Persian patterns and blue faded colours. The countryside production of these carpets are more original and primitive.

Sjirvan border, also called odd border due to the similarity with odd writings, usually a head border in Sjirvan carpets and Cuba carpets . The border consists of a double hook-border that forms squares.

Sjirvan carpets, Shirvan carpets, hand knotted carpets from the Sjirvan area in Azerbajdzjan. Older Sjirvan carpets (from before 1925) are manufactured entirely in wool and by plant dyed handspun yarn. Geometrical motifs as eightpointed stars, cross and mir-e butha are common, so is stylized animals and humans. The Sjirvan border is the most common. The carpets are often both knotted with high density and with tight patterns. Small carpets are the most common, but also larger formats (up to Kelley) occurs. Older Sjirvan carpets are nowadays coveted collector's items. Newer production of these carpets are knotted on a warp of cotton with syntethic dyed, machine spun yarn and are suitable as durable utility carpets, but often without any artistic interest.

Smyrna carpets, handknotted carpets, see Izmir carpets.

Songhur carpets, strong hand knotted carpets from the district of Kurdistan. These carpets are similar to Bidjar carpets.

Soumak carpets, Sumak carpets, a denomination on Oriental flatweaves manufactured with Soumak technique. This type of carpet probably got its name from the city of Sjemacha in the province of Quba in Caucasia. This kind of carpet from Caucasia are well-known and much coveted since a long time ago. The same kind of carpets, weaves and utility goods are also manufactured in Turkey, as well as at the Afshars, Beluchs and Shahsevans.

Soumak technique, Sumak technique , a weaving technique, where the stretched warp is sideways and entangles the yarn for the pattern over four warp threads and after that back under two, over four and so on. Several variants occur on this technique.

Soutschbolag carpets, hand knotted strong carpets from the district of Kurdistan.

Sparta carpets, a different name for Isparta carpets.

Srinagar, the province capital in Kashmir, India, and also the center for the carpet production.

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Star Ushak carpets, these carpets are made in the city of Ushak in western Turkey during the 16th - 19th centuries. The carpets are characterized by repetative patterns with yellow stars on a red bottom.

Sultan carpets, handknotted carpets from Turkey, similar to Yürük carpets.

Sumak carpets, a different name for Soumak carpets.

Symmetrical knot, a different name for a Turkish knot.

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Tabriz carpets, Täbriz carpets , handknotted carpets from the city of Tabriz in northwestern Iran.

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Tafresh carpets, handknotted carpets with a short pile surface, from the district of Iraq-Ajemi.

Taibaff, handknotted carpets in high quality from the district of Khorasan.

Talim, the denomination of a pattern origin. Often a squared paper where the pattern is drawn. Every square with its own colour represents a knot.

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Talisch carpets, handknotted carpets or runners, from the district of Azerbaijan.

Tatami, (Japanese), a carpet that in Japan is used to cover the floor. The carpet consists of a thick core, that measures a few centimetres, made by compressed straws that is covered with a soft woven carpets made of reed with borders of fabric along the sides. The size varies in different parts of Japan, but the most common size is approximately 180 x 90 cm. A room size in Japan is measured in the number of tatamis.

Tehran carpets, manufactured in the capital of Iran. Nowadays, no new production occurs so most of the existing Teheran carpets are about 50 years old. The carpets are knotted with Senneh knots , often darkred with blue elements and ivory-white contrasts. The patterns are usually medallions and floral motifs, panelling and niche motifs. Even with the presence of animal and figural patterns.

Tekke carpets, hand knotted carpets manufactured by the Tekke tribe in southern Turkmenistan. The carpets are entirely made of wool with red as the dominating colour and repetitive patterns with göls are common.

The Coronation Carpet in Copenhagen, handknotted carpet (528 × 310 cm). Made with a bottom-weave in cotton, patterns in silk and a single coloured background of gold threads, probably knotted in Isfahan, Iran. It was donated in 1666 according to reports, to the Danish Royal Court by the Dutch East India Company. Ever since 1699 the carpet has been used at all autrocratic Danish kings coronation and can be found att the Rosenborg Castle in Copenhagen and and is shown to the public during one week in October every year.

The Swedish Royal Hunting Carpet, a very well-preserved court workshop carpet from the second half of the 16th century which can be found at the Stockholm Castle. The carpet is manufactured in silk with a number of patterns made with gold and silver threads and the carpet is belived to be made in the city of Keshan in Iran. A light medallion with a red central piece with lots of hunting scenes framed by a wide, heavily ornamented border on a yellow ground is evident. It was probably brought to Sweden in connection with Carl X Gustav tell with Hedvig Eleonora of Holstein-Gottorp in 1654 and is believed together with two contemporary, similar hunting carpets (one in Museo Poldi Pezzoli, Milano) to be the absolutely finest existing pieces from the art of knotting Oriental carpets.

The Marby Carpet, handknotted Anatolian carpet from the 15th century, discovered in the Marby church in Jämtland, Sweden. The carpet can be found since 1925 at the Swedish Museum of National Antiquities in Stockholm. The Marby Carpet is entirely manufactured in wool with wefts of red and brown wool yarn. It has great similarities with the Berlin Carpet. The carpet was once cut in the middle but has now been put together again.

The Pazyryk Carpet, the oldest known handknotted carpet (from 500 B.C.). The carpet was found in 1947 in a grave in the Pazyryk Valley in the Altay Mountains in Siberia. The carpet, knotted with a Turkish knot, is almost squared (200x190 cm). The knot density is about 300.000 knots per square metre.

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Tianjin carpets, Tientsin carpets, hand knotted carpets from the city of Tianjin in eastern China (today a center for commercial knotting in China). The knotting, which began in the 1920's, was soon adapted to the demands from the western according to colours and patterns.

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Tibetan carpets, a denomination partly on handknotted carpets from Tibet, and partly on carpets manufactured by Tibetan refugees mainly in Nepal.

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Tibetan knot, this knot is made by using a temporary rod, which is placed in front of the warp.

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Tientsin carpets, a different name for Tianjin carpets.

Tjaudor carpets, Chaudor carpets , handmade carpets, manufactured by the Turkoman Tjaudor tribe, living south of the Aral Sea. The carpets are made of wool and coloured with natural dyes, dominated by light rust-brown. The most common pattern is the so called Ertmen-göl, a rhomb placed on its top.

Tji-tji carpets, Chi-chi carpets , handknotted carpets, manufactured by the Chechens in northest Caucasia. The carpets are made entirely of wool and coloured with natural dyes, often with indigo as a bottom colour. The pattern consists of a central field with stars and göls, surrounded by a border-section with characteristic diagonal rods. The most common size is the Zaronim or approximately 150 x 100 cm. Since 1925 the manufacturing of Tji-Tji carpets have been of extremly insignificant range.

Tjuval, Chuval, Tschoval , a Turkoman storage sack with an average size of 150 × 50 cm. The frontside of the sack is knotted with a Turkoman pattern and the backside is woven. The sacks are used for storing things and for storage of utility goods.

Transsylvanian carpets, a denomination of handknotted carpets from Romania in the 17th and 18th centuries. Most of the carpets are found in churches in Transylvania in Romania and in southern Hungary but they are probably knotted in Anatolia. The greater part consists of praying carpets with Anatolian patterns. The carpets are also called Siebenbürgen carpets.

Tree Of Life, a detailed pattern with Buddhistic and Muslim symbols that also have roots in the European and Nordic mythology. Often occuring on prayer carpets. Can also be found as a carpet with high knot density in wool from New Zeeland.

Tschoval, a different name for Tjuval.

Tuiserkan, hand knotted carpets with high knot density from the district of Hamadan.

Tunisian carpets, see North African carpets.

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Turkbaff, a kind of Oriental carpet knot, the same as Turkish knot. Also the name of a carpet manufactured in the surroundings of Mashad, Iran.

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Turkish carpets, a different name for Anatolian carpets.

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Turkish knot, Ghiordes knot, symmetrical knot, turkbaff, a way of fixing the pile yarn to the warp in a handknotted carpet, which occurs in a varying extension in most carpet knotting areas.

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Turkoman carpets, a summarizing denomination on carpets knotted by different Turkoman tribes.

Tuteshk, Tutesk, a high-end hand-knotted Nain carpet.

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Täbriz carpets, a different name for Tabriz carpets.

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